In the United States, most cities have an "emergency operations center" that coordinates the city's efforts in the case of emergency (such as a hurricane, a tornado, an earthquake or a terrorist attack). Preparations for such efforts have improved in recent years, but even the most prepared towns, cities, states and countries are not always well-equipped to deal with them.
The ramifications of natural and man-made disasters can be devastating! Huge disaster relief efforts are usually required to address the material damage, and to meet the basic physical and emotional needs of people affected by disaster.
Emergency operations and emergency preparedness is a set of doctrines intended to prepare societies to cope with natural or man-made disasters. Disaster relief is the subset of these doctrines that is concerned with recovery efforts.
Often a government policy adapted from civil defense operations and disaster relief efforts in the United States and around the world is initiated or supplemented by nonprofit organizations to attend to the humanitarian needs of disaster victims.